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Krishnagiri district is a district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. This is a new district which was carved out from Dharmapuri District by 2004. The municipal town of Krishnagiri is the district headquarters. In Tamil Nadu, e-Governance was first introduced at Krishnagiri district under the National e-Governance Project (NEGP) in revenue and social welfare departments on a pilot basis. The district is one of the largest producers of mangoes in India. As of 2011, the district had a population of 1,879,809 with a sex-ratio of 958 females for every 1,000 males.

Krishnagiri District Etymology

Krishna refers to ‘black‘ and giri refers to ‘hill‘. The area contains many granite hillocks, hence the name Krishnagiri. The region was under the rule of Krishna Deva Raya and hence it might also have been named after him.

Krishnagiri District History

Krishnagiri district was formed as the 30th district of Tamil Nadu on February 9, 2004. Krishnagiri District was formed by carving out five taluks and ten blocks of the erstwhile Dharmapuri district.

Krishnagiri District District administration

A district collector heads the district administration. Krishnagiri district is divided into two divisions and five taluks for the purpose of revenue administration. Revenue Divisional Officer heads the divisions and Tahsildar is the head of taluk level administration. Development administration in this district is coordinated by the panchayats (also called as blocks) for the rural areas. There are about ten panchayat unions, seven town panchayats, 352 village Panchayats and 874 revenue villages in this district.

Krishnagiri district comprises two revenue divisions

  • Krishnagiri
  • Hosur

There are seven taluks:

  • Krishnagiri Taluk
  • Hosur Taluk
  • Pochampalli Taluk
  • Uthangarai Taluk
  • Shoolagiri Taluk
  • Bargur Taluk
  • Denkanikottai Taluk

There are 12 panchayat unions:

  • Kelamangalam
  • Thalli
  • Anchetti
  • Krishnagiri
  • Shoolagiri
  • Vepanapalli
  • Hosur
  • Kaveripattinam
  • Pochampalli
  • Mathur
  • Uthangarai

Krishnagiri District Geography and Climate

Krishnagiri district covers an area of 5143 km². Krishnagiri district is bound by Vellore and Thiruvannamalai districts to the east, state of Karnataka to the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh to the north and Dharmapuri District to the south. This district is elevated from 300m to 1400m above the mean sea level. It is located between 11° 12′ N and 12° 49′ N latitude, 77° 27′ E to 78° 38′ E longitude.

It basically has a mountainous terrain. The flatlands are irrigated by the South Pennar River. The eastern part of the district experiences a hot climate and the western part contrastingly has a pleasant climate. The average rainfall is 830 mm per year. March – June is the summer season. July – November is the rainy season and during December – February winter prevails.

Krishnagiri District Transportation

Roadways

Transport via road in Krishnagiri district has gained much significance from the past, because of its location in the Chennai – Bengaluru Industrial corridor. Hosur SIPCOT (ever expanding sector of Tamil Nadu), Krishnagiri SIDCO and industries in other parts of this district such as the granite industry and mango pulp processing industry are much dependent on these road networks.

The following major roads pass through Krishnagiri.

Highways

Start/end point                          NH no.                        Kilometers
Kanniyakumari–Varanasi              7                                    2460
Krishnagiri–Ranipet                     46                                     144
Pondicherry–Krishnagiri              66                                     214
Krishnagiri–Madanapalli            219                                     175
Sarjapur–Bagalur–Hosur           207                                        40

Major bus stations

Krishnagiri municipality has two bus terminus in its limit:

  • Perarignar Anna Moffusil Bus terminus (inter/intrastate buses ply from here)
  • Oldpet Town Bus terminus (intra town/nearby village routes operation)

Hosur is now facilitated with a new integrated bus terminus named after former Hosur town panchayat president K. Appavu Pillai, the K. Appavu Pillai Memorial Bus Terminus. Town and Moffusil routes both are operated here.

Railways

Railways are not on a par with the roadways in this district. It includes the Salem – Bengaluru broad gauge line with a station at Hosur Railway Station (45 km from Krishnagiri). It is the Railway Budget 2011-12 which is about to revamp railway network in this district by means of new stretch between Jolarpet – Hosur via Barugur, Krishnagiri. This when completed enables the linking of the district with the state capital Chennai.

  • Salem – Dharmapuri – Bengaluru broad gauge line runs through Hosur.
  • Kovai – Erode – Jolaarpettai broad gauge line runs through Samalpatti.

Airways

The nearest commercial international airports are

  • Bengaluru International Airport (92 km)
  • Coimbatore International Airport (230 km)
  • Chennai International Airport (244 km)
  • Tiruchirapalli International Airport (259 km)
  • Salem Airport (110 km) is a domestic airport.
  • Hosur Airport, a private licensed airfield/aerodrome operated by Taneja Aerospace & Aviation, also exists in the district.

Krishnagiri District Public Amenities

Irrigation

The Public Works Department and Panchayat union tanks, ponds and supply channels play an important role in the irrigation of Krishnagiri district. However, they have to be desilted and strengthened. New check dams and flood protection walls have to be constructed for water conservation.

Electricity

Street lighting in rural areas is vested with the Panchayat Administration. The panchayats look after the erection of new streetlights in the hamlets, payment of current consumption charges from the panchayat funds. The procurement of tube lights, sodium vapor lights and other electrical appliances is done by the connected panchayat itself. Overall, 95% of the hamlets are covered under rural electrification. Generally the power supply position in Krishnagiri District is normal. However, in some areas the low voltage problem is felt, especially in the hamlets in the ghat section. To minimize the current consumption charges in the panchayats, efforts were taken to utilize solar power lights as an alternate and renewable source in Krishnagiri district.

Education

There is a Community Polytechnic run by the Government in Krishnagiri district. Also, the TAHDCO (Tamil Nadu Adi Dravidar Housing Development Corporation) offers nursing and catering training under vocational training courses through private training institutions to people belonging to SC / ST communities. To uplift the education of women, St. James Tailoring Institute is striving for the welfare of women in Krishnagiri town. This dress making technology gives self earning at home and makes women to get jobs in ready made garment companies in Krishnagiri itself.

Education centers                     No.
Primary schools                           988
Middle schools                            107
High schools                                113
Hr. sec. schools                             72
Industrial training institutions          5
Music schools                                 1
Teachers training schools              2
Polytechnics                                   4
Engineering colleges                    5
Arts and science colleges            8

Krishnagiri District Demographics

According to the 2011 census, Krishnagiri district had a population of 18,79,809 with a sex-ratio of 963 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 217,323 were under the age of six, constituting 112,832 males and 104,491 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 14.22% and 1.19% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 63.2%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 448,053 households. There were a total of 877,779 workers, comprising 218,600 cultivators, 197,369 main agricultural labourers, 15,237 in house hold industries, 310,795 other workers, 135,778 marginal workers, 17,438 marginal cultivators, 65,959 marginal agricultural labourers, 6,681 marginal workers in household industries and 45,700 other marginal workers.

Tamil is the official and majorly spoken language while Telugu and Kannada. Urdu is also spoken in parts of the district . Hinduism is the major religion, followed by Islam and Christian minorities.

Krishnagiri District Economy

Agriculture

The important crops of Krishnagiri District are paddy, maize, ragi, banana, sugarcane, cotton, tamarind, coconut, mango, groundnut, vegetables and flowers. The district has an excellent scope for agri-business.

The Regional Agricultural Research Center of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University has been functioning efficiently at Paiyur in Kaveripattinam union since 1973. This center functions in 18.5 hec. of land. It helps the peasants to develop and adopt the modern technique of cultivation. It has developed hybrid seeds by research which yields more tonnage and good quality.

Krishnagiri district is famous for mangoes, and for the granite industry with quarries and processing units spread around the district. With a 40% share, the district is the top producer of ragi in Tamil Nadu.

Hosur, one of the most industrialized places in the state, is located in this district.

Mining and forestry based activities

In Krishnagiri district, quarry leases are being granted for granite in Patta lands. Rough stone and earth quarry leases are being granted in government and patta lands under Tamil Nadu Minor Mineral Concession Rules 1959. The Public Works Department (WRO wing) is operating sand quarry in riverbeds. A state owned corporation called Tamil Nadu Metals and Mineral Ltd is also earning quarry and mining grants in government lands. The total mineral revenue realized during 2006-07 was Rs. 7.45 crores. It is ascertained that nearly 7,000 workers are being engaged in quarry activities.

As Krishnagiri District has 2,02,409 hectares of forest land which constitutes 39% of the total geographical area, there are abundant produce from the forest areas. Bamboo products, honey collection and tamarind production are the forestry land activities found in Anchetty, Denkanikotta, Thally and Berigai areas. This has generated employment opportunities for thousands of rural people in these areas.